English aid to the House of Aviz (which ruled Portugal from 1385 to 1580) set the stage for Portuguese cooperation with England that would become a cornerstone of Portugal's foreign policy for more than five hundred years.However, English aid to Portugal went back much further to the 1147 Siege of Lisbon, when English and other northern European crusaders – en route to the Holy Land to participate in the Second Crusade – stopped and helped Portuguese King Afonso Henriques to conquer the city from the Moors.It was very important throughout history, influencing the participation of the United Kingdom in the Iberian Peninsular War, the UK's major land contribution to the Napoleonic Wars and the establishment of an Anglo-American base in Portugal.Portugal aided England (and later the UK) in times of need, for example, in the First World War.The Anglo-Portuguese Alliance (or Aliança Luso-Britânica), ratified at the Treaty of Windsor in 1386, between England (succeeded by the United Kingdom) and Portugal is the oldest alliance in the world that is still in force – with the earliest treaty dating back to the Anglo-Portuguese Treaty of 1373.This alliance, which goes back to the Middle Ages, has served both countries.
It is the westernmost country of mainland Europe, being bordered to the west and south by the Atlantic Ocean and to the north and east by Spain.
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But what is new in the Saudi – Israeli relations is that Riyadh has launched a new phase of rapprochement with Israel, but not at the intelligence and security level.
In one of the telegrams, dated 27 April, 2005, which was sent by the Under Secretary of State for Economic and Cultural Affairs to the Saudi Minister of Foreign Affairs, regarding the receipt of a telegram from the Head of the Cabinet of the Prime Minister of Saudi Arabia, to clarify the Saudi dealings with Israeli companies, the Saudi Under Secretary of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs referred to the Decision of the Saudi Cabinet No. The decision concerns the suspension of the boycott of Israel at the second and third levels, and the preservation of the first level, which stipulate that the Kingdom boycotts the totally Israeli companies and does not boycott the ones that Israel or persons holding Israeli nationality own a share in, or foreign companies that deal with Israeli companies according to the first level.